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History of the American 
Kieelonary Asfjoolation 






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The American Missionary Association was form- 
ed in September, 1846. Four associations, that had 
existed some years preyiously, were merged in it, 
Tiz. : the "Amistad Committee," the "Union Mission- 
ary Society," the " Western Evangelical Missionary 
Society," and the "Committee for the West India 
Missions." We will give the origin and history of 
each of these : 


On the 26th of August, 1839, Lieutenant Gedney, 
U. S. N., in command of the brig Washington, em- 
ployed on the coast survey, boarded a "mysterious 
schooner," called the Amistad, near the shore at Cul- 
[oden Point, on the east end of Long Island. He found 
I large number of Africans, and two Spaniards, Pedro 
Ifontez and Jose Ruis, one of whom announced him- 


self as the owner of the negroes, and claimed Lieut 
Gedney's protection. The schooner was carried into 
the port of New London. After an examination by 
Judge Judson, of the United States District Court, 
the Africans were committed for trial, for murder on 
the high seas, at the Circuit Court, to he held at 
Hartford, September 17th. There were forty-two 
in number, viz. : thirty-eight youths and men, three 
girls, and one boy. They were all sent to the jail 
at New Haren. 

When it was ascertained that the negroes were 
recently from Africa, and had been illegally bought at 
Havana, to be taken to Principe, about three hundred 
miles distant, to be enslayed ; and that the Africans 
had risen upon their enslavers, and recovered their 
liberty, much interest was excited in the public mind. 
It was seen at once that somebody ought to act for 
these strangers. Accordingly, a few friends of free- 
dom met at 143 Nassau street, New York, and Messrs. 
Simeon S. Jocelyn, Joshua Leavitt, and Lewis Tap> 
pan were appointed a Committee to receive dona- 
tions, employ counsel, and act in other respects as cir- 
cumstances might require. The Committee immedi- 
ately announced their appointment, made an appeal 
for funds, and engaged the professional services oi 
Messrs. Seth P. Staples, Theodore Sedgwick, Jr. 
and Roger S. Baldwin. Native African interpreters 
were found on board the British armed brig Buzzard, 
lying in New York harbor. On request of the Com- 
mittee, Messrs. Leonard Bacon, Henry G. Ludlow, 


and Amos Townsend, Jr., of New Haven, undertook 
to secure suitable instruction for these benighted 

At the Circuit Court, Sept. 18th, Judge Thompson 
instructed the grand jury that the courts of the 
United States have no jurisdiction in the case, as the 
offense (if it was an offense) was committed on board 
a Spanish yessel. A vessel sailing under the colors 
of any country (said he), is considered as a part of 
that country. This is just as if the offense was com- 
mitted on land— on the island of Cuba ; and our courts 
have no more jurisdiction in the one case than the 
other. Judge T. stated that if the offense had been 
against the law of nations, the Court could have juris- 
diction ; but the killing of the captain of the Amistad 
was not a crime against the law of nations. ^' Were 
the crime piracy, even, it would not be a crime against 
the law of nations, connected as it is with the slave 

The three girls were then brought before the Court 
on a writ of habeas corpus, and the counsel for the 
Africans moved that they be discharged from the cus- 
tody of the United States marshal. This was resisted 
by the counsel for the Spaniards, and by the U. S. 
District Attorney. During the session of the Court, 
a writ of habeas corpus was taken out for all the other 
Africans, who, with the girls, had been brought from 
New Haven to Hartford, and confined in jail in the 
latter city. Notwithstanding the able arguments of 
counsel, who contended that the Africans should b» 


set at liberty, the Court denied the motion, and left 
the question whether they were entitled to their liber- 
ty, in litigation in the District Court, which was then 
opened. The Judge said an investigation would be 
made to ascertain where the seizure was made, &c.; 
and meantime the Court would be adjourned to the 
3d Tuesday in November. The Africans were then 
taken to the jail in New Haven.* 

The Spaniards, Ruis and Monte z, the Spanish Min- 
inter, and the United States Government, made strenu- 
ous efforts to have the Africans delivered up to the 
Spanish authorities. These efforts were as strenuous- 
ly opposed, as has been shown, by the counsel for the 

The District Court, held in New Haven in No- 
vember, found, in substance, that these Afiricans 
were bom free; were kidnapped in their native 
country, and forcibly and unlawfully transported to 
Cuba ; that they were placed on board of the Amis- 
tad by Ruiz and Montez, under color of permits^ 
fraudulently obtained and used ; that after achieving 
their own deliverance, they sought an asylum in the 
State of New York, by the laws of which they were 
free ; and that while there, they were illegally seized 
by Lieutenant Gedney and brought into the District 

* Judge JudBon said "the Court would, it is presumed, 
allow the prisoners to be discharged on giving bail ; but as it must 
be on an appraisementy their oounsel would not consent to It.** 
True enough, they would not consent that persons entitled to theit 
liberty, ihould be oonsidered mere chattels. 


of Coimecticut. The Court decreed that the Africans 
should be delivered to the Executiye of the United 
States, to be sent back to Africa. 

The only appeal which was taken from the decree 
of the Court, was the appeal of the United States, by 
the District Attorney, in pursuance of a demand by 
the Minister of the Queen of Spain. 

Hon. John Quincy Adams had, at the solicitation of 
the Committee, consented to act as senior counsel, and 
the cause was finally argued by him and Mr. Baldwin, 
before the Supreme Court of the United States, at the 
city ofWashington, February and March, 1841. The 
following letter, addressed to a member of the Com- 
mittee, gives the result : — 

Washington, 9th Uarch, 1841. 
To Jjetois Tappan, Esq., New York : 
The Captives are free ! 
The part of the Decree of the District Court, which 

S laced them at the disposal of the President of 
le United States, to be sent to Africa, is reversed. 
They are to be discharged from the custody of 
the Marshal-— /rce. 
The rest of the decision of the Courts below, is 

** Not nnto us— not unto us, &o.** 
But Thanks— Thanks ! in the name of humanity 
and of justice, to you. J. Q. Adams. 

The Africans were removed to Farmington, Con- 
necticut, where they remained under instruction until 
they left the country.* The Committee contemplated 

* The niimb«i said to have been shipped at Havana was fifty-four. 
Several deaths ooourred, and the number was finally reduced to 


sending one or more agents to Africa, accompanied by 
two or three of the liberated Africans, and an inter- 
preter, with a view to ascertain if Mendi, the country 
to which several of them belonged, could be reached, 
an4^ whether it was a suitable location for a mission. 
As these Africans had been instructed in the elements 
of knowledge, as particular care had been taken to 
. enlighten them on the subject of Christianity, and as 
\ they all expressed a strong desire that sojne of their 
I religious teachers should accompany them to their 
\ native land, the Committee deemed it a duty to make 
J their return, after such a providential train of cir- 
cumstances, the occasion of planting a mission in the 
interior of Africa. And as the funds had been contri- 
buted by persons of various denominations, most of 
whom were of anti-slavery principles, it was thought 
^ proper to make the mission anti-slavery and anti- 
1 sectarian in its character. Accordingly the following 
^resolution was adopted : 

Resolvedt That it woald be contrary to the feelings and 
• principles of a large majority of the donors to the Amistad 
^ fhnd, and of the friends of 'the liberated Africans, to connect 
■ * their return with any Missionary Society that solicits or re- 

.' ceives donations from slaveholders. 


'^■"■^asmuch as the Committee, were too fully occu- 
pied, either in their own pursuits, or in promoting the 
anti-slavery enterprise, to establish a mission, it was 
their anxious desire that some existing Society should 
receive the Mendians, and expend the balance of the 
fiind in conducting them to Africa, and establishing a 
mission at Mendi. To this end overtures were made 


to the Prudential Committee of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, who de- 
clined the opportmiity, connected as it was with the 
above resolution. Under these circumstances; the 
Committee felt it their duty to go forward. As the 
fiinds were inadequate to support the Africans in this 
country, defray the expenses of an exploring party to 
Africa, and afterwards to return the Africans to their 
homes, it was thought best to send them back with 
as little delay as possible. 

Accompanied by Mr. Tappan, eight or ten of the 
Africans were .taken to fifteen of the principal towns 
in Massachusetts and Connecticut, where public meet- 
ings were held, and collections made. The pro- 
ficiency which had been made by these strangers, 
under such unpropitious circumstances, in reading, 
spelling, arithmetic, &c., greatly interested the com- 

A passage having been secured for them in a vessel 
bound to Sierra Leone, a farewell public meeting 
was held in the Broadway Tabernacle, New York, 
Lord's day evening, November 27th, 1841 ; when, 
after suitable devotional exercises, the instructions of 
the Conunittee were delivered by Rev. S. S. Jocelyn 
to the missionaries under appointment, viz., Rev. 
William Raymond, Mrs. Raymond, and Rev. James 
Steele ; and parting counsels were given to the 
Mendians, some of whom took part in the exercises. 
The following is an extract from the charge of the 
Conmiittee : 


We assame no hostile attitude toward any other Missionary 
Society, and wish all God-speed in well-doing. There is t 
feature in oar operations which is peculiar ; we think it 
honorable to the caase of righteonsness, and pleasing to the 
Savior. It is this : we have assured the public, in our appli- 
cations for funds for this mission, that we do not desire the 
oflPerings of unrighteousness, and cannot receive money firom 
slaveholders for the conversion of the heathen. It has been 
done in no spirit of unkindness, but in the hope that they 
will be brought to repentance much sooner through saoh de- 
clarations, than when Christian societies receive their money, 
and virtually say to them, ** You are true to Christ and hu 


The first public moyement made with reference to 
this Society was by Rev. James W. C Pennington, 
who notified a meeting to be held on the 5th of May, 
1841, in the First Colored Congregational Church 
edifice, Hartford, Connecticut. At this meeting a 
number of members of his church, and a few persons 
attached to other communions, being present, Mr. 
Pennington stated that his object in appointing the 
meeting was to express to the people of his charge 
his sense of the obligations of Christians — colored 
Christians — ^to do something in relation to carrying 
the gospel to Africa. After prayer and discussion, 
several resolutions were adopted, and a committee 
was appointed to call a general meeting of the friends 
of missions, in the month of August. 

Pursuant to this call a convention was l^eld at 
Hartford, Connecticut, August 18, 1841, to consider 
the subject of Missions to Africa. Forty-three 
names were enrolled, being chiefly people of color, 
from the following States ; Massachusetts, Rhode | 


Island, Connecticut, New York, and Pensylvania — 
including G^e of the Amistad Africans. They formed 
themselTes into an association, called the Union Mis- 
sionary Society. The sixth article of their Con- 
stitution says: 

This Society, in collecting its fhnds, selecting its fields of 
labor, appointing its ofBcers, missionaries and agents, wUI 
endeavor particnlarly to discourUenance slavery^ and espe- 
cially by refusing to receive the known fruits of unrequited 

Rev. J. W. C. Pennington was chosen President ; 
Rev. A. G. Beman, Corresponding Secretary ; ReV. 
Theodore S. Wright, Treasurer; Ichabod Codding, 
Chairman of the Board of Managers ; and Rev. Josiah 
Brewer, Chairman of the Executive Committee. 

The Amistad Committee soon afterwards became 
merged in this Society. 


This Society was formed by the Western Reserve 
Association, in 1843. Its primary object was to prose- 
cute missionary operations among the Western Indians. 
Though not an auxiliary, it proposed to be in corres- 
pondence with the Union Missionary Society, being 
based on similar principles. The eighth article of the 
Constitution says : 

This Society shall not solicit, or knowingly receive the 
Images of oppression, especially the price of the bodies and 
louls of men, for the prosecution of the work of the Lord. 

This Society established a mission among the 
3jibue (or Chipaway) Indians, in Minnesota Terri- 


tory, which they sustained till 1848, when they be. 
came merged in the Ambrigan Missionary Ae«o- 


This mission has four stations : 

Red Lake Station. — Missionaries — Rev. S. G. 
Wright, Robert Lafferty, E. W. Carver, O. A. 
Coe, Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Lafferty, Mrs. Carver, Mrs. 

Cass Lake Station.— 3fwnondWe* — ^J. S. Fisher, 
Francis Spees, Mrs. Specs, Mrs. Fisher, Miss Feny. 

St. Joseph Station. — Missionaries — Rev. A. 
Barnard, David B. Spencer, Mrs. Barnard. 

Belle Prairie Station. — Dr. William Lewis, 
Physician and Teacher ; Mrs. Lewis. 

Rev. J. P. Bardwell, who has spent some years io 
the Indian country, is the agent of this mission. He 
collects funds to sustain it, and makes the purchases, 
and transmits them. Many, if not all of the children 
in the boarding-school of the Red Lake Station, are 
sustained by the payment of twenty-five dollars for 
each, by Christian friends in the United States. Tbe 
present number of native church members is ten. 
The Indians are making some progress, though slcff] 
in civilization. At Cass Lake, the Indians are muck 
less favorably located. There have been some con- 
versions there. They have a small school. At St 
Joseph's, the population are mostly half-bloods, or oi 
French descent, and Roman Catholics.- Six chil 
dren have been taken into the mission family^ ani 


eight others regularly attend the school, from the 

Rev. David S« Ingraham, formerly a member of 
Lane Seminary, Ohio, but subsequently of the Oberlin 
Collegiate Institute, was the first to enter on the 
work of a self-supporting mission among the emanci- 
pated people of Jamaica, which he did in the fall of 
1837, near Kingston. Having been a mechanic, and 
his health requiring a warmer climate, he determined 
on residing at Jamaica, and supporting himself, if 
possible, while he taught and preached among the 
recently freed inhabitants of that island.* He was 
received by those ignorant but interesting people 
with much gladness. Though feeble, he was able 
to preach every Lord's day, and generally from five 
to eight times a week. With the aid of his wife, and 
a friend, James A. Preston, of Ohio, who went out 
with him for his health, he commenced a school. In 
one of his letters, Mr. Preston remarks : 

The circumstances of the people are such, that many 
teachers must be had. Mind has been nnchained, and its 
dormant energies are awaking — its thirst for knowledge 
burning. Parents are beginning to call their children ' ' mine/' 
and they must and will have them educated. The whole 

• He labored at one of the stations of the London Missionary 
Society, and was to some extent supported by that body. Had his 
life been spared, it was his purpose to connect himself with the 
Mission under the American Committee. He returned to New 
York, and soon after died at Belleville, N. J. He died in the tri- 
mnph of faith. ^ 


people have been fiunishing for a long time. They say, " We 
be quite hungry for bread— we more than happy to have 
minister come to teach we." Never shall I forget the scenes 
which I witnessed there. At one destitute place, where the 
gospel had never been preached, when brother Ingraham 
told them he would come up once in two weeks, and preach 
to them, they all leaped upon their feet, crving out, " Lord 
bless you, Massa— we more than happy to have you come- 
we quite hungry — ^we quite hungrVj, Massa, for the good 
word. Do come and teach we.'*" Thus they went on for 
some time. " Some of us old," they said, " and can no longer 
go to Kingston to chapel. Do come, minister. Our children 
nave no teachers — we ignorant — can't teach them— do bring 
us teachers." .^n old gray-headed man said to me, ** Massa, 
me come down to your chapel, if you teach me to read." He 
lived fifteen miles off. 

Five Congregational ministers sailed from New 
York, in thie fall of 1839, to join this mission. Fovu 
of them were married. They went to Jamaica, in the 
expectation of receiying a plain support from the 
emancipated people, among whom they should labor. 
The good hand of the Lord went before them, so 
that shortly they were located at as many different 
stations — four of them entirely new. They soon 
found that their expectations in reference to a support 
would be disappointed, and as there were no mission- 
ary bodies in the United States from which they couW 
obtain aid, they were sometimes reduced to distress- 
ing privation. 

Early in 1844, a small pamphlet was issued in Bos- 
ton, entitled " An Appeal to the Churches in behalf 
of the West India Missions.'^ In this pamphlet was 
published the Constitution of the "Congregational 
Association of Jamaica," formed November 4th, 184*2, 
as there was no Congregational body on the Island to 


which they could transfer their ecclesiastical relations. 
The testimonials of influential ministers and laymen 
were annexed, and the following persons were invited 
to act as a Committee on behalf of the mission : Wm. 
Jackson, J. P. Williston, Marshall S. Scudder, Prof. 
WiUiam Smyth, Josiah Chapin, Lewis Tappan, Sam'l 
Osgood, D.D., Rev. Amos A. Phelps, James M. 
Whiton, Rev. John M. Whiton, and John T. Norton. 
The Committee issued a letter sheet, called the 
I " Quarterli/ Report,''^ which was sent gratuitously to 
all who it was supposed would feel an interest in the 
mission. In this paper were published letters from the 
missionaries, intelligence respecting the Island, and 
statements showing the importance of sustaining the 
mission. At this juncture, when the Committee were 
hesitating whether to abandon their efforts, or make 
an entire alteration in their plans, the American Mis- 
sionary Association was organized, and a proposition 
came from the Executive Committee of that Society 
to take charge of the mission. To this the Conunittee 
assented, and the transfer was accordingly made. 
There are at present eight stations, viz : — 
Brainard. — Missionaries — Rev. A. M. Richard- 
son,* Mrs. Richardson ;* Teackers — ^A. Moffat,* Mrs. 
Moffatt,* A. B. Hills, Mrs. Hills ; Assistants^W. J. 
Davis, L. J. Henry. 

Elliot. — Missionaries — Rev. L. Thompson, Mrs. 
Thompson ; Teacher — Miss Lucy Woodcock. 

•These are, at preMnt, in the United States, to recruit their 


Union (embracing Hermitage and Chesterfield).^ 
AB*«Vmaricj— Rev. S. T. Wolcott, Mrs. Wolcott; 
Teacher, (at Chesterfield) Miss Mary Dean. 

Devon Pen. — Missionaries — Rev. C. B. Venning, 
Mrs. Venning. 

Oberlin. — Missionaries — Rev. P. M. Way, Mrs. 
Way ; Teacher — Charles Sims. 

Providence.— Afw»(mart«5 — Rev. H. B. Hall,Mi8. 
Hall ; Teacher — ^Miss Maria Hicks. 

Brandon. — Out station of Providence, mider thei 
charge of Mr. Hall. 

Golden Vale. — Missionaries — ^Rev. A. D. Olds,* 
Mrs. Olds ;* Teacher^K, Myers ; Teacher at Rock 
River, Miss Margaret Staart. 

There are, connected with these stations, eight 
churches, under the charge of seven ordained mission- 
aries. The schools connected with the mission are 
mider the care of a voluntary school association, form- 
ed by the missionaries, for tiie double purpose of pro- 
moting the cause of education, and leading the people 
to take an interest in supporting them. The whole 
number of scholars is 716. 

The members of this mission have long felt the 
importance of training native teachers to meet the 
increasing demand for instruction in the Island of 
Jamaica, and they have for some years been desirous 
of establishing a Normal and Industrial School. A3 
preparatory to the accomplishment of this object, 

•These are, at present, in the United States, to recruit their 


and for the purpose, also, of obtaining a large quantity 
of land, that could be resold to the people in such 
quantities as they need, and can pay for, an estate, 
called the Richmond estate, containing upwards of 
1000 acres, has been contracted for. The sum to be 
paid for it is $3400. The missionaries have made a 
strong appeal to the friends of the colored man in this 
country, to contribute that sum for such a desirable 
object. With the money to be received on sale of the 
land, other lands can be purchased, and resold; and 
thus the plan be successfully continued for many years. 


Early in 1846, a call was issued for a Convention 

of friends of Bible Missions, to be held at Syracuse, 
N. Y. On the 18th February, the meeting was held. 
An address prepared by the Rev. A. A. Phelps, was 
read, in which he spoke of the position of the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissions for Foreign Missions, with 
regard to slavery, idolatry, polygamy and caste ; and 
showed that the method of dealing with these evils 
by the Board, was not conformed to reason or Scrip- 
ture, or the lessons of actual experience. The 
following is the concluding paragraph of this able 
address : 

Fribnds of Christ : Oar testunonjr is before yon. We 
bear it in sadness, bat in earnest. We lift It ap as oar note 
of warning and ren^onstrance. We pray you to near and heed 
oa. We seek amendment and change. Believe us, we have 
reached a point where these mast come, or the missionary 
Work is a reproach and wreck. In one form or another, God 


wiUing, we mast have them. And in reference thereto, in 
the eloqaent^ and prophetic language of the author of the 
Natural History of Enthusiasm, allow us to ask you, and es- 
pecially the directors of the missionary work — " Might {hai) 
not a time come when those who readily confess themselves 
to sustain, as Christians, a responsibility toward the world at 
large, and who are even forward in claiming their eeveral 
shares of this responsibility — when such, pausing a moment 
in their course of zealous enterprise, shall, with an ingenaooa 
dread of meeting at last the Divine reproof instead of ap- 
proval, set themselves to inquire whether the Christianitji 
they are sending from land to land is not loaded vrith som 
faial disparagementt such as forbids its toide extension ?" 

The Executive Committee of the Union Missionary 
Society communicated their yiews at length to the 
Convention. Thei?; letter concluded thus : 

If the principles of the Union Missionary Society are sucb 
that good men may safely adopt them, and cordially cooperate 
in their maintenance, there may be no need of another organ- 
ization. K, however, they are too contracted, or do not adoiit 
of improvement, the Executive Committee will oppose no 
obstacle to the organization of another Society, founded on 
such principles as will enlist the confidence, aid and prayers 
of all anti-slavery Christians in the world. 

The Executive Committee are of opinion that either the 
Union Missionary Society, or a new Society, should imme- 
diately, or as soon as may be, organize a system of Foreigu 
and Home Missions, embracing the following points : — 

1. An enlargement of the Mendi Mission, including the 
establishment of schools. 

2. The employment of missionaries to Hayti, and British 

3. The employment of one or more missionaries among the 
Indians on this continent. 

4. The employment of missionaries to labor in the slave 

5. Sustaining ministers and churches, who embrace anti- 
slavery principles, in the slave States. 

6. Affbrding aid to missionaries hi foreign lands, and is 
this country, who have support withdrawn from them, or 
who voluntarily relinquish it, on account of their anti-slay ery 
principles and preachmg. 

7. Affording aid to mmisters in establishing new churches 


where thev hare been dismiflsed on acoonnt of their anti- 
Blaverv principles. 

8. Bmploying miffiionariea in the firee Sttttee, and in Can- 

9. Bstablishing new missions in heathen coontries, especialr 
ly in SQch places as an anti-slavery gospel is not preached. 

There is already a readiness on the part of the Christian 
pablic to patronize anti-slavery missions, and recent events 
oave shown Christian abolitionists the importance of sepa- 
rating from pro-fllavery Boards. These sentiments are des- 
tined to spread more rapidly, and large donations will be 
contribated as soon as a plan shall be devised and put in 
operation calculated to enlist the feelings of Christian aboli- 
tionists throughout the conntiy, and worthy of receiving all 
their donations for Home and Foreign Missions. The circam- 
stances m which we are placed require, not timorous action 
and contracted plans, but a comprehensive plan, embracing 
the wants, of this country and the world. It should be such 
aphui as no reasonable, intelligent Christian can object to. 
with such a plan, and corresponding benevolent action, we 
shall enlist multitudes who are disgusted with the adultera- 
tion processes now attempted in Missionary Boards, and by 
many missionaries and ministers and churches. The time 
has passed when we may wait in expectation that existing 
pro-slavery Boards will see and acknowledge the correctness 
of anti-slaveiy principles, or be willing to promote anti- 
slavery missions. And the time hfis come when the friends 
of an unadulterated gospel ought to rally, throughout the 
world, to rescue Christianity from perversion, and save the 
missionary cause from ruin. 

The anti-slavery cause cannot, we think, be carried to a 
snccessfril issue unless the Christians of this land can be 
enlisted in the enterprise. Let us so condnct as to commend 
oarselves, and the cause we love, to the hearts and con- 
sciences of our brethren in the Church, and to ensure the 
approbation of Christ, our leader. 

We invoke, dear brethren, the presence and blessing of the 
Great Head of the Church on your meeting and delibera- 
tions : we ask your counsel as to our own views and actions ; 
and we beg you to be assured of our hearty cooperation in 
every thing that is wise, and for the promotion of the mis- 
sionary cause, the cause of the poor slave, and the honor of 
the Savior. 

On behalf of the Executive Committee, 

Lkwis Tappan, Cor. Sec, 



Yarious resolutions were submitted to the Conven- 
tion, which, with the address referred to, were fireely 
and fully discussed. They were unanimously adopted, 
^nd ordered to be extensively circulated. 

The following persons were appointed a Connnittee 
on the subject of calling a general Missionary Con- 
vention : Gerrit Smith, William Goodell, A. A. Phelps, 
Lewis Tappan, and Marshall S. Scudder. 

Agreeably to the call of this Committee, a Conven- 
tion was held at Albany, on the 2d and 3d of Septem- 
ber following. Brethren attended from six or more 
States. Rev. J. H. Payne, of Illinois, presided. Rev. 
"JrW, C. Pennington and John H. Byrd officiated as 
Secretaries. Two days and one evening were occu- 
pied in a free and harmonious discussion of the great 
principles of the missionary enterprise ; the prin- , 
ciples and conduct of popular Missionary Boards ; I 
receiving statements of the history and present con- ' 
dition of the anti-slavery missions at home and abroad ; | 
listening to interesting addresses ; in forming a con- 
stitution of a new association, electing officers, and I 
in preparing an address to the Christian public* 
The following extracts will show the general scope , 
of the Address: && ' 

1. The time has come, when those who would sustain mis- 
sions for the propagation of a pore and fi*ee Christianity, , 
should institute arrangements for gathering and sastainuig I 
churches in heathen lands, from which the sins of caste, 
polygamy, slaveholding, and the tike, shall be excluded, by I 
the terms of admission, or by disciplinary procesH. 

• The Address, from the pen of William Ooodell, can be had at 
-the office of the American Missionary Association. 


2. The*diaoiple8 of Christ are, at aU times, under Bolemn 
obligations to employ such methods and instrumentalities, 
and sach only, in the propagation of Christianity, as accord 
with its gemas and doctrines, with the teachings of Christ 
and his Apostles, and the examples of the first Cnristians. 

3. The present crisis in the cause of missions affords a 
favorable opportunity for the review of existing usages and 
methods of missionary effort ; of comparing them with the 
New Testament standard, and discardmg whatever may be 
found wrong or defective. 

Christiamty wa^es an uncompronusing warfkre against all 
forms of sin, public as well as private ; social, political, and 
organic, as well as individual ; sins sustained, authorized, 
enacted, and even required and enjoined by civil rulers, as 
well as sins forbidden and punished by them ; and ministers 
of the gospel. Christians, and Christian churches, should 
themselves abstain from, and reprove in others, the one class 
of these sins as fully as the other ; making no distinction be- 
tween them in their teachings, their examples, their terms 
of church membership, or their administration of church 

Clunstianity is to be propagated by a full and clear exhibi 
tion of the truth, fEiithfully proclaimed and applied, as " the 
sword of the Spirit," by tne living preacher, proclaiming 
and applying the truth as the ambassador of Christ ; by the 
dJstribation of the Scriptures, and kindred inatmmentahties ; 
by Christian churches, soripturally constitutea, administered, 
and disciplined, to show, in their several members, btf e3> 
ample, what Christianity is, in all the relations and conduct 
of life, and also for the mutual .and better edification of the 
members themselves, till they " all come in the unity of the 
fidth, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a per- 
fect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fdhiess of 

*< A church composed only of hopefUl converts, indepen- 
dent, and, as far as man governs it, self-governed, is our 
view of New Testament polity, and our scneme of modem 

*<To attempt to reform, by fratemitationt the corrupt 
Dational churches of the East, is, we believe, a fi'uitless 
BfTort," inconsistent with the purity of the missionary enter- 
prise, and the hitegrity of the missionaries themselves. The 
isme is true in regard to corrupt and apostate churches every 
rhere. We therefore account it a perversion of Christian 
nstitations, to receive into the churches, without *' fruits meet 
br repentance," the proud Brahmin, remaining proud, and 


reftuing to embrace fraternally the man of low Ijaste ; the 
oppressive ruler, still remaining oppressiye, and not dispens- 
ing justice to the subject ; the polygamist refhsing to con- 
form his life to the law of Christian chastity, and the slave 
master reftising to desist from hia " violation of the natnrsl 
rights of man/' by ** breaking the bonds of the slave." And 
the practice of receiving such flagrant, habitoal, and deter- 
mined transgressors into the charches, under the idea that 
they are converted, while refusing to abandon their cherished 
and darling sins, and with the vain hope that the privileges 
of church membership and the special ordinances of the gos- 
pel — baptism and the Lord's supper — will work oat "the 
great moral transformation" afterwards^ we hold to be a 
glaring departure from the principles and the usages of 
evangelical Christians, tending to foster the grossest deln- 
sion, and involving some of the worst elements of the super- 
Btitions and corruptions of Bomanism itself 

All missionary operations, every where, like all ChristiiB 
activities and efforts, should assume It as a first principle, to 
which all Christian arrangements should be adjusted, thst 
the State, or civil power, may not dictate the religion of ite 
subjects, nor mould the form or manner of religious instrac- 
tion, worship, or polity. 

Churches gathered in heathen lands, like all other churches, 
should do their own work, discharge their own duties, beir 
their own resQonsibilities, and therefore, so far and so soon 
as God confers the ability upon them, the^ should sustaia 
Christian preachmg among themselves, without remaining 
dependent for it upon Christians in foreign lands. 

It is a false view that missionaries to the heathen are 
bound to make greater pecuniary sacrifices, and endure greater 

Erivations in the work of converting the world, than their 
rethem at home, who send and sustain them. 

We maintain, in opposition to usages which now so ex- 
tensively prevail, that Christianity is best propagated ahrooL 
by a strict adherence to the same principles and methods 
that are essential to its best growth and development ai 

It is a false, nnscriptural, and mischievous error, that Chiis- 
iian ministers labormg among the heathen, and called mu* 
9wmariesy should be expected to surrender that ministerial 
independence and ** purity," or equality, which is so highly 
prized, so justly cherished, and so jealously guarded, by their 
brethren in the ministry at Iwme. 

Each local church, that (with the same strict economy d 
Its members and ministers that it would expect, of a mis- 


sionary) posseaBea the peonniaTy means of sustaining its own 
missionary abroad, should feel it a privilege to do so. Two 
or more churches in the vicinity of each other, and unable 
singly to sustain each its own missionary in the field, might 
cooperate in sending out and sustaining the man of their 
choice. Individuals, having the means, or able to obtain 
them of others, may with propriety send out and sustain 
missionaries of their own. The supporters of a missionary 
have the common right of all Christians to advise and ad- 
monish their brethren. 

The new Society was called the American Mis- 
sionary Association. The following articles form a 
part of its Consitution : 

Art. n. The obiect of this Society shall be to send the 
gospel to those portions of our own and other countries which 
are destitute of it, or which present open and urgent fields 
of effort. 

Art. UI. Any person of evangelical sentiments, who pro- 
fesses fiuth in the Lord Jesus Christ, who is not a slaveholder, 
or in the practice of other immoralities, and who contributes 
to the funds may become a member of the Society, and by the 
payment of thirty dollars, a life-member ; provided that chil- 
dren and youth who have not professed their fiuth, may be 
constituted life-members without the privilege of voting.* 

Art. YIII. This Society, in collecting funds, in appointing 
officers, agents, and missionaries, and in selecting fields of 
labor and conducting the missionary work, wiU endeavor 
particularly to discountenance slavery, by refusing to receive 
the known fruits of unrequited labor, or to welcome to its 
employment those who hold their fellow-beings as slaves. 

Art. IX. Churches and other local missionary bodies, 
igreeing to the principles of this Society, and wishing to 
ippoint and sustain missionaries of their own, shall be entitled 

*By evangelical sentiments we understand, amonff others, a 
mlieiin the guilty and lost oondition of all men without a Savior { 
he Supreme Deity, inoarnation' and atoning saorifioe of Jesus 
/hrist, the only Savior of the world j the necessity of regenera- 
ion by the Holy Spirit j repentance, faith, and holy obedience, in 
rder to salvation : the immortality of the soul ; and the retributions 
f the Judgment, in the eternal punishment of the wicked, and sal- 
ition of the righteous. 


to do 80 throngh the agency of the Executive Committee, on 
terms mataally agreed apon. 

Hon. Williaia Jackson, of Massachusetts, was cho- 
sen President ; Professor George Whipple of Ohio, 
Corresponding Secretary ; and Lewis Tappan of New 
York, Treasurer. It was resolved that the ExecutiTC 
Committee be located in New York. 

Subsequently the Jamaica Mission, the WesteiB 
Evangelical Missionary Society, and the Union Mis- 
sionary Society were merged in the new Association^ 
transferring to it their missions, funds, papers, &c. 

The American Missionary , a monthly paper, took the 
place ot the paper entitled the Union Missionary, and 
the first number bears date October, 1846. 

The first annual meeting of the American MissioD- 
ary Association was held at the Society^s rooms 22 
Spruce street. New York, September 29, 1847. The 
Treasurer reported cash receipts, (including a small 
balance received from the Union Missionary Society, 
etc.,) $13,033.67, and expenditures, $12,253.65. 

The report of the Executive Committee conomuni- 
cated the first year's history of the Society. From it 
we extract the following : 

Bev. Amos A. Phelps, who had taken so active a part in 
the formation of this Society, and who had visited the missioa 
at Jamaica some months before his death, departed this lif« 
at Roxbury, Mass., July 30th, 1847. His last energies were 
expended m reexamining the principles contained m his let- 
ters to Drs. Stowe and Bacon, and preparing them for the 
press ; thus reaflBrming with hia expiring breath the prin- 
ciples which lie at the foondation of our existence as a mis* 
sionary body. 



In the preceding historical sketch, we left the 
Amistad Africans on their way to their native land, 
accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Raymond, and Mr. Steele. 
They arriredat Freetown, in the colony of Sierra Leone, 
January 15th, 1843, after a passage of fifty days. All 
their stores, tools, and implements of agriculture were 
admitted free of duty, and even without examination. 
Gov. Ferguson, under directions from the British 6ot- 
enmient, proffered every necessary assistance. Soon 
ailer arriving, Messrs. Raymond and Steele became ftilly 
satisfied of the impracticability of reaching the Mendi 
country ; and ascertaining that part of the Amistads 
belonged to the Sherbro country, and that all were 
willing to go there, Mr. Steele, accompanied by 
Cinque and several others, visited Sherbro. King 
Henry Tucker, to whom they went, lived at Kaw- 
Mendi, in that country, and seemed willing to receive 
the people into his territory. The conditions were 
such, however, as Mr. Steele felt he could not accept. 
Accordingly it was decided, on his return to Sierra 
Leone, that they should spend the approaching wet 
season in the colony, and during the following dry 
season look for a place offering more reasonable terms. 
It was also decided, in order to save expense, that 
the people should move to York, about twenty-five 
miles south of Freetown. Here they were placed on 
a farm, which had been allotted them by the generous 
owner, free of rent. 

Early in the rains, Mr. Steele, having suffered 


considerably, felt under the necessity of abandoning 
the enterprise, and returning home. Mr. Raymond 
continued at York, preaching the gospel in the Wes- 
leyan chapel, superintending the farm, instructing 
the Mendians, and promoting the cause of Peace and 

After the rains, Mr. Raymond, accompanied by the 
Rey. Thomas Raston, of the English Wesleyan Mis- 
sion, commenced, in November, 1842, a trip to the 
Sherbro. King Tucker received them kindly. He 
was still willing to have the Mendians settle in his 
territory, but was disposed to be hard in his conditions. 
Mr. R., however, succeeded in making an agreement 
with him. He chose a place for the mission about a 
mile below the village of Kaw-Mendi, on account of 
its elevation, and the quality of the soil. The King, 
on receiving eighty- dollars for the koe-nany or presents 
to the chiefs, consented to his having one hundred and 
sixty square rods — ^half a mile on the river, extending 
a mile back — for which he was to pay an annual rent 
of $100.* 

Having completed this business, Mr. Raymond re- 
turned to York, where his family still were, and soon 
after set out with them for Kaw-Mendi. The King 
ordered a swivel to be loaded and fired, as a token of 
joy on account of their arrival. The women and girls 
began to sing and dance. A multitude of men, women, 
and children flocked around to see the white woman, 

« ThiB was afterirarda relinquished. 


having never seen one before. In the morning 
many people were drawn together by their singing 
and praying at family devotions. On Lord's day, Mr. 
Raymond held religious services, and preached his 
first sermon here, from John iii.* 16: "For God so 
loved the world," &c . The Bang attended, and seemed 
much impressed. 

The influence of the mission on the slave-trade, on 
the King, and on the people, became quickly apparent. 
A flourishing school was soon in operation, and Mr. 
Raymond felt greatly encouraged. Having buried 
their only child, Mr. and Mrs. Raymond, alter leaving 
the Africans in their charge under suitable superin- 
tendence, visited the United States, in the year 1842 
and returned, Nov. 21, 1843, with a female helper — 
Miss Hamden. 

The first number of a monthly paper, entitled the 
Union Missionary, was published by the Executive 
Committee of the Union Missionary Society, May, 
1844. Mr. Raymond rejoiced "at its establishment. 
" The receipt of it," said he, " has put new life into me. 
I saw there, by extracts from letters, and from the re- 
ceipts, that my prayer was being answered. This 
mission is evidently planted by God himself. I am 
more and more satisfied of it. It will prosper." 

On the first Lord's day in January, 1845, Mr. Ray- 
mond organized a church with five members. His 
cares and labors were great, but he was permitted to 
see fmits abounding amidst the dificulties with which 
the mission was surrounded. 


The CoEimititee could have essentis^y lessened 
the expense of the mission, had they allowed tobacco 
to be taken there as an article of merchandise. Rum 
and tobacco have usually accompanied missionaries 
to foreign lands, stfmetimes with, and often without 
their consent. In Africa tobacco is a sort of currency, 
and a large profit is realized from its sale or barter. 
The Committee determined to forbid its introduction 
by any missionary in the service of the Society, 
believing that if they profited by the sale of it, or 
permitted its use, they would be violating the law of 
love; and that hereafter, when the heathen should 
become enlightened and Christianized, and aware of 
the injurious qualities of the article, and the imposition 
they had suffered in paying hundreds of per cent 
for it beyond its commercial value, they would look 
back upon missions that sanctioned the sale and use 
of it with disgust. 

A terrible war commenced in the Sherbro counti^ 
in 1845. Many towjis were burned.- Hundreds fleJ 
from the scenes of war to the mission as a place ol 
refuge. The mission appeared to exert a powerfnl 
influence. The persons and property of all connected 
with it were respected. Its character as a* place of 
Freedom, Peace, Temperance, and Christianity was 
known far and wide. The school was sustained at 
great expense, for famine ka usual followed the tread 
of war. Mr. Raymond thought himself obliged to re- 
deem a large number of children from bondage, and 
thus save them from slavery or death. The pages of 


the Umon Missionary bear witness to his untiring ex- 
ertions, his remarkable faith, and the signal interposi- 
tions of Divine Providence in his behalf, and that of 
the mission. Rev. Henry Badger wrote at this time 
to a member of the Committee as follows : 

Did you ever hear of a mission being established in the 
midst of warl Here is one, and it has advanced daring the 
war more than previoasly. A school has been ibrmed, and 
is doing well. The Mission Establishment, at first regarded 
with much snspicion, is now looked npon with great respect. 
It is a sanctuary. And while other towns and places are 
consumed by fire, and their inhabitants destroyed by sword, 
or carried into slavery, this flourishes and improves. 

Rev. Thomas. Raston, of Sierra Leone, in a lettei 
to the Treasurer, says : 

I know you will be gratified and thankful for the cheering 
prospects of success which Mr. Raymond has before him. 
God grant that these prospects may be blessedly realized., 
and many souls converted. Ah, I often think of my dear 
friend, Mr. Baymond. What privations— what trials— what 
zeal, and what untiring perseverance ! 

On September 8, 1847, Mr Ra3rmQnd addressed 
a most urgent appeal to the friends of the Mendi 
mission to send out a reinforcement, and save him 
from being overwhelmed with embarrassments in view 
of the desolating wars still raging all around him, 
and the famine and distress of the people. He says 
in this communication, " Of the ultimate success of 
this mission I have not the least shadow of a doubt. 
God has planted it, and He will not pluck it up— the 
devil cannot !" 

This appeal was one of the last efforts of his. pen. 
Being at Sierra Leone, on business of the mission 


while much exhausted, he preached on ship-board to 
a large number of emigrants from America, to Li- 
beria, who had stopped at Sierra Leone for water. 
He then returned to town, and preached to a large 
congregation from the words, " Come unto me, all ye 
that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you 

While he was delivering this sweet message to his 
fellow-men, the Savior, looking tenderly on his worn 
and wearied servant, whispered, " Come and I will 
give thee rest." Willingly he turned away from the 
labors which had been to him of such absorbing inter- 
est — a gentle hand unloosed the silver cord — and he 
entered on that rest which remaineth for the people 
of God. 

Mr. Raymond had lived for years in the fulfilment 
of an entire consecration. He not only lived for 
God, but in God. He knew what it was to enjoy 
unbroken peace. His ideas of the Christian's privi- 
lege in this respect were much in advance of his fel- 
low disciples generally; he expected all he asked, 
and of course received it. He thought it no presump- 
tion to accept the offers of grace to the uttermost ; 
and the Lord said to him, as he does to each of us, 
" According to your faith be it unto youJ* 

As Mr. Raymond was passing away, a friend said 
to him, " Have you a sure confidence in God 1" 

Faith had now well nigh given place to sight, and 
he replied, " Certain, certain, certain." 


He departed November 26, 1847.* He was buried 
at Freetown ; his friend Rev. H. Badger, leading in 
the funeral solemnities. " Help, Lord, for the godly 
man ceaseth !" 

The care of the mission now derolyed on Thomas 
Bunyan, a natiye, who had hitherto acted as interpre- 
ter. There were at this time sixty-seyen children 
in the school ; and besides these, there were twenty- 
one persons connected with the mission. Most of 
them were either children whose parents had been 
slain in the wars, or captives, redeemed from slavery 
or death. Mr. Will, a friendly native merchant at 
Freetown, made liberal advances for sustaining the 
mission, both before and after Mr. Raymond's death, 
and in connection with Rev. H. Badger, addressed a 
letter to the principal chiefs of the country, advising 
them that the mission would certainly be sustained^ 
and requesting their continued friendship towards it. 

About four months after this. Rev. George Thomp- 
son and Anson J. Carter, having offered themselves 
as a reinforcement to the Kaw-Mendi mission, sailed 
from New York, April 8, 1848. They arrived amidst 
war and famine, and were received with the most 
clamorous joy. Mr. Carter died in eight days after 
he reached Kaw-Mendi. His sickness does not, how- 
ever, appear to have had any connection with the un- 

«Mr. Raymond was born in Ashby, Mass., October 2, 1815. An 
obituary of this devoted missionary, written by the Treasurer, may 
be found in the American Missionary of April, 184@. 


healthiness of the climate . Thus again was the missioD 
thrown upon a single individual. 

But God can save hy few as well as hy many. The 
whole history of the Mendi mission is calculated to 
impress this thought. " Not by might nor by power, 
but by my Spirit saith the Lord." Mr. Thompson 
labored there alone more than two years, much of 
the time suflfering from sickness. But out of weak- 
ness he was made strong. The Lord went before him, 
preparing the hearts of the people to receive his mes- 
sage. He had been permitted to gather previous to 
1851, some sixty souls into the fold of Christ. The 
first was Maria (Te-me,) one of the Amistad Af- 

Carrying out Mr. Raymond's designs, he acted as 
a peace-maker among the contending tribes, and at 
length was happily instrumental in bringing this tedi- 
ous war to a close. In pursuance of this, object, he 
went into the interior (along the Big Boom river,) 
where a white man had not before been seen. Every 
where he preached the gospel, and every where it was 
kindly, and even eagerly received. The readiness 
with which the natives listened to the truth was won- 
derful. He found the fields were indeed white unto the 
harvest. It might be truly said, Ethiopia now stretches 
out her hands unto God. 

In the fall of 1849, Mr. John S. Brooks and his wife, 
(Miss Fidelia Coburn,) and Miss Kinson, (Mar-gru,) one 
of the Amistad Captives, who had been hopefully con- 
verted at Sierra Leone, and who had returned to this 


Goontiy to be educated, at the expense of the Associa- 
tion,) sailed for Africa. Mrs. Brooks, whose heal^ 
had been feeble for some time, died of eihaustion, 
after landing safe in Afirica, and before she had reached 
the mission. 

On the 10th of December, 1660, eight missionaries 
vere sent out to reinforce the mission at Kaw-Mendi, 
and the new station at Tissana, viz : Rev. J. Cutler Tefil 
and wife ; Rev. F. L. Arnold and wife ; Miss Joanna 
Alden ; Miss Hannah More ; Mr. William C. Brown ; 
and Mr. Samuel Gray. Miss Alden died at the 
mission-house, March 3d, Mrs. Arnold June 9th, 
amd Mrs. Teffl June 10th, 1851. Mrs. Tefil's health 
had not been good before she went to Africa. On the 
eve of her departure for that country, she said, " I 
am as happy as a bird ; the hour of this meeting is 
the happiest of my life." 

In May, 1852, Mr. Arnold, acting under the di- 
rection of physicians, returned to -this country ; since 
which, at his request, he has been separated from the 

On the 25th December, 1852, the following new 
missionaries embarked for Africa ; Rev. Morris Officer ; 
Dr. T. G. Cole ; Mr. Daniel W. Burton and wife ; Mrs. 
George Thompson ; Miss Mahala McGuire ; Miss 
Louisa Saxton ; and Miss Mary B. Aldrich. 

Rev. John Condit sailed, to join the mission No- 
Tember 30, 1853. Worn out by arduous labors, he 
died, April 24, 1864. During this year Mr. Officer, 
and Mr. and Mrs. (late Miss McGuire) Gray, (colored) 


returned to this country. Mr. Officer is a member 
of the Lutheran church, and if he returns to Afiica, 
will probably go out in connection with missions of 
his own denomination. Mr. and Mrs. Gray returned 
on account of ill-health, after having in various ways, 
rendered valuable service to the mission. 

Two new stations were formed in 1854 — ^the Boom- 
Falls Station, and Good Hope Station, Sheibio 

A reinforcement sailed for Africa, January 23, 1855, 
consisting of Miss Woolsey, Miss Winters, and Miss 
Susan Teall, accompanied by Rev. J. Cutler Tefil and 
wife (late Miss Saxton,) and Mrs. Burton, who \ai 
been in Ihe United Staates some months, with Mis 
George Thompson, to recruit their health. 


Rev. Jonathan S. Green, who has been for about 
twenty-eight years a missionary at the Sandwick 
Islands, ventured some years since to try an impoi- 
tant experiment. Being dissatisfied with the comse 
pursued by the American Board in several respects, 
and more particularly in the matter of slavery, he 
withdrew from their patronage, and threw himself 
upon his church, at Makawao, East Maui, for support 
He thought the people were able to sustain the goa 
pel, and that it would have a good effect on them t( 
feel the responsibility of doing so. He thought too 
if his experiment succeeded, other missionaries migl 


be encouraged to adopt the same course.* The Lord 
met the faith of his servant, by opening the hearts of 
the people, and supplying all his need. Subsequently, 
however, such changes have taken place at the Islands, 
that Mr. Green finds it necessary to rely upon the 
Association more than he anticipated, to sustain him 
in his missionary labors. 

He has been permitted to carry out successfully the 
following experiment. It is well known that the 
chiefs were the sole proprietors of thasoil; the com- 
mon people owned nothing, and thus, the ordinary stim- 
olus to industry not being furnished, they have re- 
mained firom age to age idle and degraded. Mr. 
Green felt that here was a system of oppression 
closely akin to that system of slavery at home which 
he so much deprecated, and it seemed to him. that his 
dafy, as a Christian Missionary, required him to apply 
the gospel principle to this form of sin, and do what 
in him lay to abolish it. This, too, may be called a 
bold experiment; for, so far as appears, it is the first 
instance in which a missionary of this country, or any 
other^ hae( attempted such an innovation on the estab- 
lished usages of savage life. Many chiefs had beea 
hopefully converted, yet they still adhered to this sys- 
tem of oppression. Other missionaries may have 
minted out to them its inconsistency with the law of 
iove, yet no one appears to have made any vigorous 

* Afterward! the Amerioftn Board adopted a similar ooune irith 
Vgard to all their muiiionariea at the Sandwich lalanda. 


attempt to apply the gospel to the evil. Mr. Green 
took the oath of allegiance, thus identifying himself 
with the people, and then proceeded to urge on the 
chiefs the importance of allowing all, who wished, tobe- 
come owners of the soil. He at length obtained per- 
mission to sell lands in his vicinity for the government. 
This was a great point gained. Purchasers were not 
wanting ; and soon the common people, who never had 
been, and never expected to be, anything more than 
serfs, fqnnd themselves men. They were at once 
raised in the scale of being. They now had a motiTe 
for industry, which neither they or their fathers hat) 
ever known. More recently an additional stimulos 
has been afforded by the ready sale found for their 
productions in California. I 

We see in this a comment on the importance of 
carrying out gospel principles, which the wayfaring 
man and the worldly man may read and not err there- 

It is gratifying to find that the other missionaries 
are beginning to follow Mr. Green's example, and the 
Board, contrary to their fbrroer policy, now recom- 
mend them to take the oath of allegiance to the 
Hawaiian King, become land-holders, and encourage | 
the people to sustain the mission. i 

On receiving notice of the formation of the Ameri-| 
can Missionary Association, Mr. Green expressed a 
strong desire to be considered one of its missionaries, 
and that mission was accordingly adopted. There are 
five stations where the preaching of the Gospel ii 


pretty regularly maintained, and three out-stations. 
The church at Makawao contains 549 members in 
regular standing, and that at Keokea 201, making 
an aggregate of 750. On the first Sabbath in 1854, 
more than one hundred united with one of these 
churches, and about two hundred with another. 


The Siam Mission was adopted in 1848. In Jan- 
uary, Rev. D. B. Bradley, M. D., in his own behalf, 
and for Rev. Jesse Caswell, late of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, made 
application to be taken under the patronage of the 
American Missionary Association, and continued in 
their missionary labors at Bangkok. Letters from 
the Prudential Committee, commendatory of these 
brethren, were laid before the Executive Committee. 
These letters allude to alleged " doctrinal error" 
held by Messrs. Bradley and Caswell, and the influ- 
ence it had on the peace of the mission. Mr. Caswell 
made a communication to the Prudential Committee, 
containing a statement 3f doctrine on the only point 
wherein he supposed himself to diflfer from the great 
body of the supporters of the Board. All that is 
deemed objectionable is contained in the following 
paragraphs : 

I believe and teach, that the provlBions of graee are such 
as authorize the Christian to look to Christ, with the confi- 
dent hope and expectation of reoeivinff all the aid he needs 
to enable him to do all the will of God, or, in other words, 
to love God with all his heart, and his neighbor as himse:£ 


Gonfieonently, I do not, as some suppose, set aside the 
grace of Christ, or the doctrine of oar constant dependence 
on that grace. Whatever available power to obey God we 
ever have, is a free gift of his grace. 

I believe that the answer to the 149th qnestion in tiie 
"Larger Catechism" which says, "No mere man is able, 
either by himself, or by any grace received in this life, per- 
fectly to keep the commandments of God ; bat doth daily break 
them in thought, word and deed," goes beyond what can be 
proved by the Bible. 

While I have no thought that any actually have attained, 
or wiU attain, in this life, to a state of entke and contiiraed 
exemption from sin, I believe and teach that to afi&rm the 
converse of this proposition is going beyond what we haye 
Scripture authority for doing. 

Signed by J. Caswell. 

With these views, Dr. Bradley expressed his sub- 
stantial agreement.* 

After a deliberate consideration of the documents 
kid before them, the Executive Committee of the 
American Missionary Association, believing that Siam 
was an important field, and that Messrs Caswell and 
Bradley were well qualified to perform missionary 

« The Prudential Committee afterwftTds oiroolsted privately a 
printed defence of their virtual exciBion of Measm. Casvell and 
Bradley. It is there intimated that "doctrinal error" was not the 
only reason these brethren were requested to resign. The advo- 
oaoy of their views occasioned, or threatened to occasion it seems, 
discord at the mission ; but it is not alleged that the Inculcation of 
their views necessarily produced any thing like discord. This 
defence was printed because discontent had been expressed from 
various quarters, at the virtual cutting off of tbese missionariea, 
which resulted in the breaking up of the mission of the A B. C. F. 
M. at Bangkok. The defense, however, failed to satisfy %I1 of the 
propriety of the measures of the Prudential CommiH«e in the man* 
.agement of what they called '^ a complex case." 


laboi there, and not regarding the views held by them 
any disqualification, in the sight of God, for such sev- 
vice, resolved to take up this mission. The mission 
pnoperty at Bangkok was purchased by the Executive 
Committee, and three missionaries with their wives 
were sent out, the following year : Rev. D. B. 
Bradley, M. D., and wife ; Rev. John Silsby and 
wife ; and Rev. L. B. Lane, M. D., and wife. One 
of them, Rev. J. Silsby has since returned, with his 
family, on account of ill-health. 


MissionrieSf Rev. C. F. Martin, Lazarus S. Murad, 
Mrs. Martin. * 

The missionaries sailed from New York, October 
12th, 1864, and arrived at Cairo, Egypt, Dec. 12th. 

The Copts are the native Christians of Egypt, 
claiming to be the unmixed decendants of the old 
Egyptians. Their number is estimated at from 100,000 
to 300,000, forming about one-fifteenth of the popula- 
tion of Egpyt. Their spoken language is the Arabic. 
They retain also the Coptic language, of the Shemitic 
family, in which they have an early version of the 
Scriptures, and their liturgies and church services. 
In ecclesiastical organization, doctrinal belief, and 
modes of worship, they are supposed to have departed 
less from the New Testament standard than the Roman 
Catholics. Many of their clergy are ignorant and 
bigoted, with little knowledge of the Bible. A few 
of the younger Copts seem to know something of 
spiritual religion. 


Mr. Murad is a Syrian, and was bom at Bethlehem 
He was converted while enjoying the ministrations 
of American Missionaries in Syria. He speaks a 
number of the languages of the East, has before visit- 
ed Egypt and is acquainted with the habits and cus- 
toms of the people. 


This Association consider the Home field quite as 
important as the Foreign. There is a rapidly increas- 
ing number of valuable men, engaged in home mission- 
ary labor, who are becoming more and more dissatis- 
fied with the policy of the American Home Misaionaiy 
Society in relation to slavery. They say : 

1. Slaveholders are life-members^ and may become life-di- 
rectors of the Society. 

2. By the Constitation and By-Laws of the Society the 
churches are its beneficiaries, and whatever may be the char- 
acter or principles of the missionary, he is expected to be in 
fellowship and in ecclesiastical connection with the Presby- 
terian or Congregational churches in whose vicinity he is 1a- 
boring. Consequently, those who are laboring in slave States 
are expected to be in ecclesiastical connection with churches 
of slaveholders. The funds expended by the Society in such 
States are used in planting and sustaining churches in which 
the making merchandise of men is not asuf&cient ground for 
exclusion from church privileges. 

3. The missionaries of the Society are expected to collect 
fands for the Society's treasury, and are thus made to assist 
in sustaining slavery. 

4. In this wa^, churches of slaveholders have been built 
up by the contributions of Northern men. In one year the 
Society reported that they had planted eleven churches in 
the slave States, and it is not known that one of them would 
exclude the slaveholder. 

Rev. John G. Fee, of Kentucky, formerly a mis- 


sionary of the American Home Missionary Society, 
withdrew from its patronage some years since, collect- 
ed a church of non-slayeholders, and has received aid 
from the American Missionary Association. 

Including Mr. Fee, there are now in Kentucky, in 
the service of the American Missionary Association, 
three missionaries, and three colporteurs. 

In North Carolina we have one Missionary. Our 
missionaries in these two States, in addition to their 
other labors in preaching, are engaged in lecturing and 
debating on the subject of Slavery, showing its sin- 
M. character, and destructive influences, and the duty 
of the church in relation to it. 

Our Colporteurs in Kentucky, are engaged in distri- 
buting the Bible to slaves and others, and religious and 
anti-slavery publications to the whites, which are for 
the most part well received. 

In Kentucky there are eight churches, and six in 
North Carolina, formed on the principles of non-fel- 
lowship with slaveholders. The " United Brethren 
in Christ" have twelve churches in Kentucky of the 
same character. 


Missionaries, — ^Rev. S. Y. Blakeslee, and Mrs. 

Mr. Blakeslee's mission is to the foreign population 
of San Francisco. He commenced his labors there 
in January, 1853. The labors of Mr. B. have been 
of a varied character and very arduous, and yet, owing 


to untoward circumstances, without the efficiency that 
was hoped for. 


The Executive Committee early determined to 
send missionaries to Kansas, and made an appeal 
for funds, which has been responded to in part. 
Three missionaries have been appointed, one or more 
is on the way, and a number of others stand ready to 
go if the funds can be provided for their support 
They wUl engage in laying the foundation of civilized 
Christian societies, and wUl oppose efforts to introduce 

The number of ministers of the Gospel employed 
by the Parent Association in the new Sates and Ter- 
ritories the last year is 64 ; by the Auxiliary at Chi- 
cago 23 ; and by the Auxiliary at Cincinatti, 15; 
Total 103. Most of the missionaries are pastors, and 
some have several churches under their care. A small 
number are missionaries at large, evangelists, travers- 
ing large sections of country, preaching to many feeble 
churches, and to all people as they have opportunity ; 
and acting in the organization of new churches. 

The number of members of the churches, under the 
care of our missionaries, at the present time, is 4252. 
The additions during the year 1854, by profession of 
faith, are 283, and by letters from other churches, 387. 
Revivals were reported, the same year, and upwards 
of four hundred souls, it is thought, have under the 
ministrations of the missionaries been converted to 


Christ. The number of Sabbath School scholars con- 
nected with the missionary churches and stations is 
5218. The contributions to benevolent objects (not 
local), reported by the missionaries for 1854, amounts 
to $3701.66.' 

Great good has already been effected through the 
American Missionary Association, not only in connec- 
tion with its missions, but among the friends of the 
missionaiy cause generally. It is now more than 
heretofore acknowledged that the admission of Caste, 
Slaveholding, Polygamy, and kindred sins into 
churches gathered in Christian or heathen lands, is a 
violation of the rules of God's house, and productive 
only of evil. It is also felt, more than heretofore, that 
the attempt to overcome sin, which is allowed at the 
altar and in the sanctuary, by preaching so as to avoid 
a direct assault, is futile. Some of the mission 
churches, of India, after having long endeavored to 
eradicate the spirit of caste, while permitting its prac- 
tice, are convinced of the necessity of more consist- 
ent and direct efforts. The Seci^etaries of the Ameri- 
can Board have intimated to their missionaries that 
they consider slaveholding prima facie evidence of sin 
and of unfitness for church privileges. 

Experience has demonstrated the fact with regard, 
to the missionaries of the American Missionary Asso-- 
ciation, that the minister of the cross may faithfully 
bear testimony against the most popular sins, even 
when this course runs directly across the passions and 
prejudices of men ; that a gospel of equal rights and 


brotherly love may be saccessfully preached to kings 
engaged in war and to governments sustaining oppree- 
tion, or enriching themselves by slave-trading. 


The attentive reader of the preceding sketch -will 
see the good hand of our God in the origin and growth 
of this new missionary movement. The considerations 
which called it into existence, to labor for the most 
neglected and injured of our race, and which demand- 
ed new efforts for the evangelization of the world by 
an organization which should separate itself entirely 
from the great crime of this nation, and the great hin- 
drances to the progress of Christianity every where, 
will justify a brief statement of our distinctive princi- 
ples. They are embraced in the following propositions, 
which the light of past experience and the teachings 
of Scripture prove to be in accordance with the true 
theory of gospel missions : 

1. Our Association is strictly evangelical, but not 
sectarian. Those truths relative to the character and 
government of God which are essential to His glory, 
and to the holiness and happiness of men are insisted 
on ; while doctrines about which the truly pious may 
and do differ, are not so presented as to prevent 
Christian fellowship and united effort. A practical 
adherence to this principle, on the part of Missionary 
Societies generally, would save tens of thousands of 
dollars every year, in home and foreign missionary 


3. The Association is republican in its structure, 
and thoroughly amenable to the Christians by whom 
it is supported. We believe that all missionary work 
should spring from, and be directed by, the great body 
of Christian belieyers. That bodies of men haying 
no proper constituency, and perpetuating themselyes, 
should be permitted to wield vast influence and wealth 
in directing the aflairs which pertain to the interests 
of Christ's Kingdom, is neither scriptural, nor safe to 
the Church. Such irresponsible control would not 
be allowed in the State ; why should it be in the 

3. The American Missionary Association seeks to 
giye a pure and whole gospel to the heathen world, 
and to the destitute of our own land. It arrays the 
authority and doctzine or our Lord Jesus Christ against 
every form of sin, however popular it may be, or how- 
ever sirongly enforced by governmental enactments. 
It instructs its missionaries to gather true converts 
whenever they can be found into a Christian Church, 
and to exclude from its bosom such as enslave or 
oppress their fellow-men, or practice the abomina- 
tions of caste, or are polygamists, or who fellowship 
those who pay religious homage to that which is not 

The very existence of the Association was designed 
to be a standing protest against errors that had occurred 
in the conduct of missions — such as the prevalence 
of caste in the churches of India, the admission of 
slaveholders to churches gathered by missionaries in 


our own land, the neglect to apply the precepts of 
the gospel to oppressive rulers, and the toleration, not 
to say fellowshipping, of superstitious rites and idola- 
trous ceremonies in other lands. 

The missionaries of the Association are also in- 
structed, and have been from the beginning, to make 
their several missions self-sustaining as soon as the 
providence of God will admit ; to set examples of 
self-denial and labor for the gospePs sake ; to encoui- 
age the people to sustain the institutions of religion { 
among themselves; and to train those dependent on I 
them to some industrial occupation. 

Another object kept in view, is to encourage ChriS' 
tian men in the various walks of life, farmers, black- | 
smiths, house-builders, etc., |o go with their imple- | 
ments of trade into every part of the heathen worldi 
singly or in families, there to exemplify the spirit of 
the gospel, while they sustain themselves by theii 
labors, and exhibit in the midst of pagan darkneas 
the complete idea of a Christian society. 

We wish to impressupon the mind of the reader 
the importance and practicability of awakening an in- 
terest, and securing co-operation in the work of mis- 
sions, by means of a Voluntary Loq(^ Agency. After 
the education which the Churdk Iftus enjoyed for so 
many years on the subject of Christian benevolence 
and reformation, it is believed that this may be done, 
and thus the expense of a permanent paid agency be 

It is believed that in almost every town, there maj 


be foand some Christian man or woman, who has 
taken an intelligent interest in behalf of the slave and 
in behalf of a pure Christianity. Such might easily 
introduce the monthly mission paper, and as oflen as 
twice a year solicit from the benevolent around, dona- 
tions ; the aggregate of which would amply meet the 
wants of benevolence, and not less abundantiy bless 
ike donors. 

In very many localities. Ladies' Associations may 
be formed, (many such are already in existence,) 
which by occasional meetings for sewing, knitting, 
etc., and by quarterly public addresses, which can be 
easily secured, shall keep alive much missionary in- 
terest, and secure permanent and substantial aid. 

In not a few counties are Christian laymen capable, 
(and it should not be a burden,) of visiting neigh- 
boring towns and spreading out the history and 
claims of the American Missionary Association, 
remitting what contributions should be intrusted to 
their hands. Wliile numbers are willing to leave 
kindred and country for the work of Christ, and mul- 
titades among the poorer and more laborious classes, 
cheerfully contribute from their littie store, it ought 
not to be difficult to find an individual in every county 
of the free States, ready to undertake the work of a 
Local Agent, that thus, in the simplest and most eco- 
Qomical way, the interests of a pure Christianity and 
holy freedom may be greatiy advjinced. 

One design of this document is to call out and for- 


nish with needful facta, such voluntary agency, 
through which the departments of beneyolence to 
which the Executiye Committee of the Americao 
Missionary Association deem themselyes called, maj 
be sustained and extended. 


The monthly circulation of this paper, which is the 
organ of the Association, is at the present time (1855) 
19,000 copies. It is sent gratuitously to donors. At 
the request of any friend of missions, it will be sent 
for a limited period to any one who will pay the trifling 
postage, and read the paper. 

Tlie number of life-members of the Association 
amounts to 1,159. An elegantly engrayed certificate 
is sent to all who are made life-members, either by 
their own subscription of $30, or by the subscriptioD 
of other persons. 

The receipts of the Association as reported at the 
meeting, September, 1854, were for the preyious fiocal 
year $49,838.76. 


The destitute in our own country should be adequate- 
ly supplied with a preached Gospel. The many mil- 
lions of heathens — ^men, women, and children— ought 
to hear the news of salyation. They are fast passing 
away, and in half a century ninety-nine hundreths 
of them wUl haye gone to their account. How 
little has been done for them ! How much remains to 


be done ! Christians of this favored land, listen to the 
injunction of the ascending Saviour : 


Gospel to evert creature." Go ye, personally or 
by your representative. And while you give to the 
cause of missions according to your ability and as the 
Lord has prospered you, pray earnestly that God's 
name may be exalted among the heathen ; that the 
desert may rejoice and blossom as the rose ; that 
the isles may wait for Christ ; that the old waste 
places may be built up ; that God's will may be done 
ON earth as it is in Heaven. 



The following from the American Missionary of May, 

1855, will be useful to ministers, church-officers, and 

committees, who are friendly to the Association, as 

hints with regard to taking up collections. 

In March is the annual collection, in Rev. Henry 
"Ward Beecher's church, for Home Missions. It was 
the present year managed in this wise : small hand- 
bills, (a copy is subjoined,) and the American Mis- 
sionary for April, were, with permission of the 


minister and committee, distributed in the pews. In 
reading the notices, Mr. Beecher said something like 
the following : 

" To-day collections are to be made in this church, 
morning and evening, for Home Missions. And here 
let me say, society is composed chiefly of tvo 
classes of men who contribute to the necessities of 
others. First, the sympathetic ; they give from feel- 
ing, because they see misery with their eyes, or hear 
it with their ears ; they are more affected on seeing i 
young beggar in winter with bare feet, than they aie 
with the fate of a thousand men perishing at a dis- 
tance ; they will not give anything to a distant object 
— for the perishing heathen, for the Western States, 
for great objects. The other class is the calculating; 
they have no sympathy for squalid poverty ; they heed 
not the cries of distress ; they have no heart in their 
contributions ; they will give a thousand dollars when 
it is to be heralded in the newspapers, when party in- 
terests require it, when some distant showy object looms 
up before them. Both of these classes may have some 
touch of benevolence, it may break out, occasionally, 
in spots, but no one of either class is half a man- 
Splice them together, and you might make a whole 
man. There may be some who do not give at aB, 
from any motive ; they are monsters in society. 

" But there is another class. They have feelins- 
and they have also principle. They do not neglect 
the outcast, the perishing, the virtuous poor in their 
neighborhood, nor the many calls near them that de- 


serve their kind regard ; and they can think of, and 
bless those at a distance, whose names they never 
heard. They have an enlarged benevolence, that 
lakes in a whole country — a, world. These are men — 
whole men ; and neither private charity, nor public 
appeals are by them unheeded. They give generous- 
ly, to the extent of their means. I hope there are 
many here of this class to-day ; they will have the 
opportunity and pleasure of contributing to a worthy 

" The money given that is not designated, will be for 
the American Home Missionary Society. It has, as 
you know, its missionaries in all the western States. 
The good it has done is well known to you, and your 
annual contributions have been regularly given to its 
treasury. But there is another society that solicits 
your benefactions — ^The American Missionary Asso- 
ciation. This is an anti-slavery missionary society, 
and a large number of you, I know, are interested in 
it It has missionaries in slave States, who establii^ 
churches that refuse fellowship with slaveholders. 
That is right ; they ought to be barred out everywhere. 
Those who choose can write upon the hand-bill in 
their pews the sum they will contribute, and such as 
contribute now can wrap the money in the hand-bill. 
Both can be put into the plates as they are passed 
tround. The gentlemen designated will please to 
proceed in taking up the collection." 


[copy or HAND-BILL.] 



" The desert shaU rejoice arid blossom as the rote." 


Bbsidbncb, •• •• 


Whbn Payablb, 

The number of Home Missionaries given in tlit 
Report of the Association is 103, and 3 Colporteois. 
They are located generally in Ohio, Indiana, Michi- 
gan, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kentach 
North Carolina, Kansas, and California. 

Our Missionaries have formed eight non-slayeholding 
churches in Kentucky, and six in North Carolios* 
The Missionaries in all the fields are self-denyiof> 
laborious, and deyoted men, and their labors ba^^ 
been greatly blessed in the conversion of hundreds oi 
souls to Christ, and in promoting temperance, the cvtat 
of the slave and every good work. 


Money may he subscribed above, or folded i 
this paper. 


The Prest. of the Assoc, is Hon. LAWRENCE BRAINERD, of Yt, 
The Seo'8., Rev. GEO. WHIFFLE and Rev. S. S. JOCELYK. 
The Treas., LEWIS TAPFAN. 

The Mittonary Rooms are at 48 Beehman Street, New York. 

D7 Thb Ambkican MiBBioKAST [a monthly paper] is circulated 
grataitonsly. Any person can receive a copy on applying at the 
rooms the last week in each month. 

The collection was repeated in the evening. It is 
hoped that other ministers will be as liberal and fair- 
minded as Mr. Beecher, and that many other congre- 
gations will give the American Missionary Associ- 
ation an equal opportunity with other societies. When 
there is a decided majority of members that sjrmpa- 
Ihize with the A. M. A., there seems no good reason 
^y the rule adopted in Mr. Beecher's congregation 
this year should not be reversed, and the money not 
designated be for the A. M. A. And when there is 
about an equal number, it would be fair to take turns. 
"A good rule works both ways." 

Donors are requested to remit money to the Trea- 
turer, Lewis Tappan, No. 48 Beekman Street, New 
Tork ; and missionaries and other persons are desired 
to address all letters pertaining to money matters, to 
bim. When bank notes or drafts, or certificates of 
deposit are inclosed, it is best to pin them to the let- 
ter ; and drafts should be made payable to the Treasurer 
by name. The word Treasurer, should be omitted on 
the envelope, for additional security. 

The Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer acknowledges 
ionations of &vg dollars and upwards, by letter. 


inunediately on the receipt of the money ; and all (be 
receipts are acknowledged in the monthly paper. 
Money received in January wOl be acknowledged in 
the March number, and so on. 


Persons who design to bequeath portions of their 
estates to the Association and not have their inten- 
tions meet with disappointment, will do well to con- 
sult an experienced attorney, and have their wills ex- 
ecuted, if practicable, while they are in full posses- 
sion of their faculties of mind and body ; bearing in 
mind that if they wish to alter their wills, at any exUb- 
sequent time, it can be done by adding a codicil or 
malong a new will. 

l^hQ Association is an incorporated Society ; and 
the form of a will may run thus : 

" I give and bequeath unto the Treasurer, for the 
time being, of The Ameeican Missionaey Associ- 
ation, New York City, the sum of dollars 
for the general purposes of said Society, to be paid 
with all convenient speed after my decease ; and the 
Receipt of such Treasurer for the time being, shall be 
a an^cient discharge for said legacy." 

The Will should be attested by three witnesses, who 
should write against their names, their places of resi- 
dence, and state that they signed the instrument in the 
presence of the Testator and each other, and that the 
testator declared to them, that this was his last Will 
and Testament. 

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